ureteral stone surgery
A stone in the kidney is an annoying, if not painful, condition. The average kidney stone is about the size of a pea, but can be as small as a grain of sand or as large as a golf ball. The majority of kidney stones are caused by an excessive amount of calcium in the urine. A kidney stone is often the result of dehydration, which causes the urine to become too concentrated. Kidney stones can also be caused by other factors such as gout, metabolic disorders, and the use of certain medications. In this case, a doctor at Parth Hospital may recommend surgery to remove the stone. The procedure will involve inserting a small tube into the bladder through the urethra. A tiny wire loop is inserted into the bladder and is used to break up the stone. Once broken up, the stone is removed with a special suction device. The doctor may also prescribe medication to help prevent the formation of additional stones.
What are Ureteral Stone Surgery?
Kidney stones are hard stones that can form in the kidney, in the tube (the ureter) draining urine from the kidney, or in the bladder.
What causes Ureteral Stone Surgery?
The kidneys filter the blood and remove excess water and waste chemicals to produce urine. Urine travels from each kidney down the tube (the ureter) draining urine from the kidney into the bladder. This is called the urinary tract.
Many waste chemicals are dissolved in the urine. The chemicals sometimes form tiny crystals in the urine which clump together to form a small stone. Most kidney stones are small and pass out with the urine. Some stones become stuck in a kidney or in the ureter.
In most cases, there is no known reason why a stone is formed. Most stones are made of calcium. However, in most cases, the amount of calcium and other chemicals in the urine and blood is normal.
What makes Ureteral Stone Surgery more likely?
You are more likely to form a kidney stone if your urine is concentrated. For example, if you exercise vigorously, if you live in a hot climate or if you work in a hot environment when you may lose more fluid as sweat and less as urine.
You are also more prone to develop kidney stones if you have:
- Repeated (recurrent) urine infections.
- Repeated (recurrent) kidney infections.
- An abnormal kidney - for example, with scars or cysts on it.
- A close relative who has had a kidney stone.
Ureteral Stone Surgery symptoms
For some people, a kidney stone may just stay in a kidney and cause no symptoms. Other kidney stones may travel out of your body in your urine without you knowing anything about it. If kidney stone symptoms do occur, they include:
Pain from a kidney.
A stone that is stuck in a kidney may cause pain in the side of your abdomen (loin). This pain can be very severe and cause you to feel sweaty and be sick (vomit).
- This is a severe pain which is caused by a stone that passes into the tube (the ureter) draining urine from the kidney.
- The stone becomes stuck. The ureter squeezes the stone towards the bladder, which causes intense pain in the side of your tummy (abdomen).
- The pain caused by renal colic may last from a few minutes to a few hours. The pain comes in spasms and between these spasms there may be intervals of no pain or just a dull ache.
- The pain may spread down into the lower abdomen or groin. You may sweat, feel sick or even vomit because the pain can be very bad.
Blood in your urine.
You may see blood in your urine (the urine turns red). This is caused by a stone rubbing against the inside of your ureter.
Urine infections are more common in people with kidney stones. Urine infections may cause high temperature (fever), pain on passing urine (dysuria) and a need to pass urine more often.
Ureteral Stone Surgery treatment
Most stones that cause renal colic are small and pass out with the urine in a day or so. You should drink plenty of fluids to encourage a good flow of urine. Strong painkillers are often needed to ease the pain until you pass the stone. No other treatment is usually needed.
Some stones become stuck in a kidney or in one of the tubes (the ureters) draining urine from a kidney and cause persistent symptoms or problems. In these cases, the pain usually becomes severe and you may need to be admitted to hospital. There are various kidney stone treatment options, including:
- Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) uses high-energy shock waves which are focused on to the stones from a machine outside the body to break up stones. You then pass out the tiny broken fragments when you pass urine.
- Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is used for stones not suitable for ESWL. A thin telescope-like instrument (a nephroscope) is passed through the skin and into the kidney. The stone is broken up and the fragments of stone are removed via the nephroscope. This procedure is usually done under general anaesthetic.
- Ureteroscopy is another treatment that may be used. In this procedure, a thin telescope is passed up into the ureter via the urethra and bladder. Once the stone is seen, a laser is used to break up the stone. This technique is suitable for most types of kidney stones.
- Surgery to remove the stone. This is only needed in a very small number of cases where the above, newer techniques have not worked or are not possible. It may be done if you have a very large stone in your kidney.